Health

What is the success rate of da Vinci robotic surgery?

Do you know how bad was medicine in the early days? Yes it is true that old knowledge of medicine has helped pave the way for the modern medicine we all know now but imagine living in the old days where medicine was gruesome and unhygienic. If you ask a doctor, you will understand how modern medicine has allowed many people to be able to live better and age gracefully. In this article, we will learn about da Vinci robotic surgery which seems a new hope for surgery procedure.

Using very tiny tools attached to a robot arm, robotics surgery is the method of surgical procedures. The way the robotic system works is by a surgeon making a tiny incision in the body and then inserting the mini-instrument. Then, using the high-definition 3D camera to see clearly inside the body. At times, skin incisions may not be needed but this will depend on what kind of surgery. Surgeon will manipulate the instrument to perform the operation.

When speaking of robotic surgery, many will think that it is the robot that will perform the surgery. This is entirely untrue. This Robotic system would not be able to operate on its own without the surgeon’s control. The system does not have ways of thinking of its own which means it can never perform surgery without human controlling it. The robotic surgery is a system that allows surgeons to make precise, delicate motions while still controlling the machine.

When speaking of surgical robotics, minimally invasive surgery has been the cause of the surgical robotics to start evolving. Minimally invasive surgery such as laparoscopy has allowed surgery to be done with smaller incision and less risk for infection. It also means less pain for the patient and less hospital stays. Even though it seems like laparoscopy is the best surgery available, the limitations of the procedure itself such as problems with natural hand-and-eye coordination, physiologic tremors and mechanical nature of the equipment, may compromise the outcome of the surgery.

Thus, to overcome these limitations, surgical robots since then have been envisioned to extend the capabilities of human surgeons. Robotic surgery begins with Puma 560, a robot used in 1985 to perform neurosurgical biopsies. Puma 560 is the core of the development of PROBOT, a robot designated for transurethral resection of the prostate. At the same time, ROBODOC is designed to assist in hip placement surgeries. In the mid-to-late 1980s, researchers from National Air and Space Administration (NASA) who have worked on virtual reality want to use such information to develop telepresence surgery. Telepresence surgery has become one of the mould in developing surgical robots. While these robots were being developed, general surgeons and endoscopists joined the development team and realised the potential these systems had in overcoming the limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery.

Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning (AESOP), a robotic arm controlled by the surgeon voice commands to manipulate an endoscopic camera is then developed. Intuitive Surgical Systems also existed around the same time. This system was redesigned and reintroduced as the Da Vinci surgical system.

In the da Vinci system, there are 3 essential components: a vision cart that holds a dual light source and dual 3-chip cameras, a master console where the operating surgeon takes a seat, and  a patient cart with the 2 instrument robotic arms and the camera arm. The main console consists of an image processing computer that generates a true three dimensional image with a depth of field; a view port where the surgeon views the image; a foot pedal to control electrocautery, camera focus, instrument grip, camera grip, and master control grips that drive the robotic arms on the patient’s side. The instruments are cable driven and provide degrees of freedom. In order to give the surgeon the illusion that the tip of the instrument is an extension of the control grip, thus giving the impression of being at the surgical site, this system displays a three dimensional image above the surgeon’s hands.

There are more than 1700 da Vinci systems used in hospitals worldwide. This translates to more than 775 000 patients having da Vinci robotic surgery done on them. There must be a good reason why da Vinci system has been used widely in surgery and one thing for sure is because of its reliability and its success rate. The da Vinci system has shown success rates of between 78 to 94%

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It can be concluded that robotic surgery has come a long way since the start of the laparoscopy. This robotic system should not be a terrifying experience for those who need to undergo robotic surgery. Robotic surgery has helped to minimise pain, infection and human error that comes during traditional surgery. Da Vinci robotic surgery is one of the most common systems used in the world. Da Vinci procedures are performed for a wide range of conditions in specialties including cardiac, urologic, gynecologic, paediatric and general surgery.